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    Revista Boliviana de Química

    versión impresa ISSN 0250-5460

    Rev. Bol. Quim v.24 n.1 La Paz  2007

     

    ARTÍCULO ORIGINAL

    PHYTOCHEMICAL RESEARCH OF PLANTS USED BY THE ASSOCIATION OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AT APILLAPAMPA

    Marcelo Bascopea b *, Olov Sternera.

    a Department of organic chemistry, Lund University, PO Box 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.b Centro de Tecnología Agroindustrial, Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Cochabamba Bolivia.

    Corresponding author: Marbascope@hotmail.com



    ABSTRACT

    A research concerning the medicinal plants reported by the association of traditional medicine in Apillapampa-Bolivia was done; this review covers all the phytochemical scientific information reported for the 158 species reported as medicinal plants until September 2005. The results indicate that 16 % have been deeply studied, 10% was moderately studied, 17% was barely studied, and near the 45% were not studied at all. Among the plants that have some studies only 46 % have shown to be subjected to some kind of biological activity screening. The results show that the Andean traditional medicine is a barely studied field and pretends to serve as a guide for future phytochemical research.

    Key words: Traditional medicine, review, Bolivia ,


    RESUMEN

    Se hizo un resumen de la investigación relacionada con las plantas medicinales reportadas por la asociación de medicina tradicional de Apillapampa Bolivia (AMETRAC), el resumen cubre toda la información fitoquímica reportada para las 158 especies de plantas medicinales hasta septiembre del 2005. Los resultados indican que el 16% han sido extensamente estudiadas, 10 % moderadamente estudiada, 17 % vagamente estudiadas y cerca al 45 % no ha sido estudiada en lo absoluto. Entre las plantas que tienen algunos estudios solo el 46 % han sido sometidos a algún tipo de ensayos de actividad biológica. Los resultados aquí presentes muestran que la medicina tradicional andina es un campo muy poco estudiado y pretende ser una guía para futuras investigaciones fitoquímicas.


    INTRODUCTION

    Bolivia is the Latin-American country that has the largest indigenous population, and because of historical issues, some groups of this population didn’t have access to modern medicine, in its absence they kept the knowledge that was transmitted from generation to generation to specific persons which are called Yatiris, Kholliris, Kallawayas or tradicinal doctors. According different authors their origin is dated back to the preincaic era[1], there are also reports of their service to the incas Court, where they had the role of special advisor to the amautas[2] (wise people).  In Octuber 2003 the book “Plantas medicinales para la atencion primaria de la salud” was published, this book covers a wide description of uses and botanical identification of the plants, based on the experience and knowledge of eight traditional doctors. The geographical area were the study was located is called Apillapampa, located south east of the Capinota county in Cochabamba Bolivia (17˚ 55’ south, 66˚ 15’ West).

    In the quest for new lead compounds in the pharmaceutical industry, natural products have been a starting point of drugs and drug leads, 61% of the 877 small-molecule new chemical entities introduced as drugs worldwide during 1981–2002 can be traced to or were inspired by natural products[3].

    In our attempts to validate the traditional medicine, we present in this article a review of the information available for the different plants presented in the book mentioned before trying in this way; to confirm the properties assigned to the plants, describe the phytochemical composition, analyze the scope of the studies done, and open new research lines based on the information available.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    Information research

    The ethno botanic information was collected from the book “Plantas medicinales para la atencion primaria de la salud” by Ina Vandebroek, Evert Thomas and AMETRAC (Association of traditional medics) from Cochabamba Bolivia , the scientific search was done using the SciFinder Scholar Version 2004. Which used the following databases; Reference databases: CAPLUS, MEDLINE, Structure database; Registry and Reaction Databases; CASREACT. Parallel Internet search was done to verify some non reported publications or ethno botanic knowledge (specially for plants with few information).

    Definitions

    For a better understanding of the terminology used in the present work, and avoid speculations we have made some definitions concerning to different terms used in the present article; Ethno botanic knowledge, is referred to information obtained from a reliable source, a scientific publication or public report collected from a traditional medic or person trained in the field, Scientific information is any material published in a scientific media, indexed in any of the databases mentioned above. Phytochemical research is any research concerning with metabolites from the plant.

    Classification

    To describe the extent of research done for each plant, a query for the scientific information available to September 11th 2005 was made, the plants were classified in four major groups; a) Highly studied plants (more than 50 references), b) Studied plants (between 10 and 50 references), c) barely studied (at least 1 phytochemical research reference) and d) no Studied, where non phytochemical research was found, a sumary  can be found in Table 1.

    Table 1. Classification of plants based on information available.

    ID

    GROUP

    Number of components

     
           

    A

    Highly studied plants

    28

     

    B

    Studied plants

    19

     

    C

    Barely studied

    31

     

    D

    non phytochemical research

    80

     
           
           

    We identify the vegetal distribution between the medicinal plants on the study area, the book reports 168 plant species and 3 lichens described, all the species represent 54 different familys see table 2. The most dominant families are the Asteraceae, solanaceae, Fabaceae, lamiaceae and scrophulariaceae, all together represent 49.1 % of the total population of the plants, 8 specimens couldn’t be completely identified two of them seem to be new species, but at the moment the book was published were not confirmed as new species and were not included in the results on the present review. We based the study in the 158 species that have a complete botanical identification.


    Table 2. Genus distribution of medicinal plants in apillapampa.

    No

    FAMILY

    Specimens

    %

     

    No

    FAMILY

    Specimens

    %

     

    1

    Asteraceae

    42

    26.6

     

    16

    Ranunculaceae

    2

    1.3

     

    2

    Solanaceae

    13

    8.2

     

    17

    Polygonaceae

    2

    1.3

     

    3

    Fabaceae

    13

    8.2

     

    18

    Passifloraceae

    2

    1.3

     

    4

    Lamiaceae

    9

    5.7

     

    19

    Loasaceae

    2

    1.3

     

    5

    Scrophulariaceae

    7

    4.4

     

    20

    Iridaceae

    2

    1.3

     

    6

    Cactaceae

    5

    3.1

     

    21

    Geraniaceae

    2

    1.3

     

    7

    Verbenaceae

    4

    2.5

     

    22

    Euphorbiaceae

    2

    1.3

     

    8

    Rosaceae

    4

    2.5

     

    23

    Ephedraceae

    2

    1.3

     

    9

    Mycophycophyta

    4

    2.5

     

    24

    Caryophyllaceae

    2

    1.3

     

    10

    Adiantaceae

    4

    2.5

     

    25

    Brassicaceae

    2

    1.3

     

    11

    Poaceae

    3

    1.9

     

    26

    Berberidaceae

    2

    1.3

     

    12

    Malvaceae

    3

    1.9

     

    27

    Apiaceae

    2

    1.3

     

    13

    Loranthaceae

    3

    1.9

     

    28

    Anacardiaceae

    2

    1.3

     

    14

    Rubiaceae

    2

    1.3

     

    29

    Valerianaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    15

    Rhamnaceae

    2

    1.3

     

    30

    Tropaeolaceae

    1

    0.6

     
                       

    Table 3. Cont. Genus distribution of medicinal plants in apillapampa.


    No

    FAMILY

    Specimens

    %

     

    No

    FAMILY

    Specimens

    %

     

    31

    Sapindaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    43

    Crassulaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    32

    Santalaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    44

    Commelinaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    33

    Rutaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    45

    Chenopodiaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    34

    Primulaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    46

    Buddlejaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    35

    Polypodiaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    47

    Bromeliaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    36

    Plantaginaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    48

    Begoniaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    37

    Piperaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    49

    Basellaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    38

    Oxalidaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    50

    Ascepiadaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    39

    Krameriaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    51

    Araceae

    1

    0.6

     

    40

    Gentianaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    52

    Amaryllidaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    41

    Equisetaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    53

    Amaranthaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    42

    Cuscutaceae

    1

    0.6

     

    54

    Alstroemeriaceae

    1

    0.6

     
                       

    The group A is characterized by plants widely distributed in the world, something that can be explained by the introduction of them during the conquest of the Americas . That they are common explains why they have been investigated so extensively. Noticeable is the fact that some of these plants are not used as medicinal plants in the Eastern cultures, indicating that some knowledge was developed after they were introduced. To this groups belong plants well known from their commercial value, fruits and flowers, and many identified as weeds in agricultural crops, but they are not consider to be priority phytochemical targets in this investigation.

    Groups B and C, however, were at the center of this research. A brief review about each species considering what sort of extract was studied (e.g essential oils), the main constituents and their biological activities was prepared. Where no specific compounds were studied we indicate what sort of extract was studied i. e. Essential oil (ESO), Oleoresin, alcoholic extract, etc. Group B contains 19 species of which 16 are in focus for at least one phytochemical report, the three remaining species didn’t have any one.. It is important to note that biological activity was reported only for 10 plants in this group. Table 3 summarizes the results obtained from this group. Several of the studies reporting biological activity are based only of screening of crude extracts or essential oils, only in a few cases the active compounds had been identified. Most of those cases are report on new substances. Group C contains 31 species; only 12 of these are reported with some specific biologic activity. The most of the studies are related with studies of the essential oils. 17 species are only covered by one phytochemical report, describing a few compounds.

    Group C contains 31 species, only 12 of these are reported with some specific biologic activity. The most of the studies are related with studies of the essential oils. 17 species are only covered by one phytochemical report, describing a few compounds. see table 4. 17 species have only one phytochemical report describing few compounds.

    CONCLUSIONS

    From a total of 168 species reported by the traditional medics from Apillapampa 16 % have been deeply studied, 10 % was moderately studied, 17 % was barely studied (less than 2 phytochemical related studies), and near the 45 % were not studied at all. Among the plants that have some studies (group B and C) only 46 % have shown to be subjected to some kind of biological activity screening.

    It is clearly show in this study that there is a big unexplored field from medicinal plants from the Bolivian traditional medicine. Due the big diversity and importance of traditional medicine in Bolivia, more studies concerning traditional plants must carried on, the results found in this research indicated that plants showed biological activity in different fields and could be an important contribution to attenuation of health problems in Bolivia.


    Table 4. Group B Studied plants, description of different studies done.

     

    Specie

    Studies

    Main constituyents

    Biological activity reported

             

    1

    xanthium spinosum

    15

    Atractyloside[4], sesquiterpene lactones4 [5] [6] [7] [8] [9], diterpene glycosides[10]

    Antitumor5, Antimicrobial7, Toxic4

    2

    Baccharis dracunculifolia

    10

    Cinnamic acids [11], flavonoids11  glycosides[12] [13]  ESO[14] [15] [16]

    Cariogenic[17],  trypanocidal [18]

    3

    cestrum parqui

    10

    Phenols [19]nor-isoprenoids[20], spirostanol [21], saponins [22], kaurene glycocides[23] [24]

    molluscicidal22 , toxic [25]

    4

    aloysia gratissima

    8

    ESO [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32]

    Nematicidal26 virucidal27 antimicrobial 29

    5

    solanum abutiloides

    8

    Sesquiterpenoids[33] , steroidal glycosides[34] [35] [36] cholestane glycosides [37] [38] [39], alkaloids[40]

    anti-fungal33 , anti-herpes[41]

    6

    Apium Leptophyllum

    8

    hydroxybenzofuran Acid[42],  volatil oil [43][44] , phenolics[45], furanocoumarin[46] [47] [48] [49]

    Antimicrobial 43

    7

    Satureja Boliviana

    7

    Phenols[50] ESO[51] [52] [53] [54] [55]  terpenes[56], flavonoids56

    Gastic cytoprotection[57], anti-tumor56,antiviral[58]

    8

    Baccharis genistelloides

    6

    diterpenoids[59][60], ESO[61][62], flavonoids60

    Anthi-arthritic[63], gastric cytoprotection57, antiviral[64]

    9

    Zanthoxylum coco

    5

    Coumarin[65], pyranoquinoline65 [66] Alkaloids[67] [68], Seed's oil[69] [70]

     

    10

    passiflora mollissima

    4

    Naringenin[71],Passifloricins[72] , alpha Pyrones72, glycosidically bound Eugenol[73] Methyl salicylate73, volatile constituyents[74]

     

    11

    Schkuhria pinnata

    4

    Sesquiterpene lactones[75] [76],terpenes[77],sterol[78], triterpenols78

     

    12

    Equisetum giganteum

    3

    Oleoresin[79] , crude extract[80] [81]

    no antibacterial80, nerve growth factor related81

    13

    rumex conglomeratus

    2

    Flavanones[82] Anthracene derivatives[83]

     

    14

    ligaria cuneifolia

    2

    flavoniods[84], galactoside lectin[85]

    cell growth regulators84, inmunobiological85

    15

    ullucus tuberosus

    1

    triterpenoid saponins[86]

    hypoglycemic activity86

    16

    Prosopis laevigata

    1

    Flavonoids[87]

     

    17

    Bromus unioloides

    0

    No phytochemical research

     

    18

    Anoda Cristata

    0

    No phytochemical research

     

    19

    Nicotiana otophora

    0

    No phytochemical research

     
             

    Table 5. Group B Studied plants, description of different studies done.

     

    Specie

    Studies

    Main contituyents

    Biological activity reported

    1

    Mutisia acuminata

    4

    Flavonoids[88], Coumarins[89], coumestan derivatives89

    Antimicrobial[90], no significant wound healing activity[91]

    2

    Plazia daphnoides

    5

    Caffeic acid esters[92],diterpenes[93],coumarin derivatives93ESO[94] [95] [96] [97]

     

    3

    Ephedra americana

    2

    Tannins[98], Ephedrine[99]

     

    4

    Dunalia brachyacantha

    3

    sesquiterpenes[100], withanolides100 [101] [102], flavanones100

    antiparasite100, antibacterial100,antifungal100, trypanocidal101

    5

    Solanum tripartitum

    2

    steroidal alkaloids[103] [104]

    tumor inhibitors104

    6

    Minthostachys andina

    3

    ESO[105] [106] [107]

     

    7

    Chuquiraga parviflora

    2

    Flavanoids[108] [109]

     

    8

    Melilotus indicus

    2

    benzo-1,2-pyrones[110], sterols[111]

     

    9

    Tagetes pusilla

    2

    flavonoids[112], ESO[113]

    antitumor112, insecticidal113,antiviral[114] ,antiinflamatory[115]

    10

    Eryngium paniculatum

    3

    ESO [116],terpene aldehyde [117]

    carcer therapy[118]

    11

    Colletia spinosissima

    3

    seeds oil[119], triterpenoids[120], alkaloids[121]

     

    12

    Cortaderia rudiuscula

    1

    Triterpene methyl esthers[122]

     

    13

    Lepechinia graveolens

    2

    Phenolics[123], ESO[124]

    Antioxidant activity123

    14

    Lycianthes lycioides

    1

    crude extract[125]

    cytotoxicity screening125

    15

    Caiophora canarinoides

    1

    Seed oil[126], stearidonic acids126, gama linoleic acid126

     

    16

    Caiophora chuquitensis

    1

    Xanthine[127], sweroside127, rutin127, shikimic acid127, kaempferol 127

    Atioxidant activity127

    17

    Salvia haenkei

    2

    Clerodane diterpenoids [128], triterpenoids[129]

     

    18

    Hedeoma mandoniana

    2

    ESO[130] [131]

    insecticidal activity130

    19

    Otholobium pubescens

    1

    Bakuchiol[132]

    antihyperglycemic activity132

    20

    Berberis boliviana

    1

    Alkaloids[133]

    hair loss treatment[134]

    21

    Ambrosia arborescens

    1

    herb suspensions[135], sesquiterpene lactones[136]

    hypoglicemicand hyperinsulinemic effects135

    22

    Ophryosporus charua

    1

    Benzofurans[137], ESO[138]

     

    23

    Proustia cuneifolia

    1

    Coumarins[139] [140].  guaianolides139

     

    24

    Senecio pampeanus

    1

    Alkaloids[141]

     

    25

    polylepis besseri

    1

    ESO[142]

     

    26

    Gentiana Sedifolia

    1

    Xanthones[143]

     

    27

    Tessaria fastigiata

    1

    Sesquiterpenes[144], flavonoids144

     

    28

    Senecio clivicolus

    1

    terpene derivatives[145]

     

    29

    Flourensia riparia

    1

    Sesquiterpene lactones[146], septuplinolide146

     

    30

    Verbesina semidecurrens

    1

    Eudesmane derivatives[147]

     

    31

    Mutisia orbignyana

    1

    methylcoumarin[148]

     


    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    The authors are grateful to the Swedish International Development Agency (Sida) and its research division SAREC, for the economical support of this work.

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